|The Log of Mystic Seaport: Four Essays|
Forty-Niner Fourth of July
Sailing card for the ship Sweden, bound for San Francisco.
The Editorial Board of The Log of Mystic Seaport is pleased to present its Fifth Annual Prize Article. Final selection was made by a committee comprising two members of the Editorial Board and three Fellows of the G. W. Blunt White Library. In offering a $500 award the Fellows of the Library hope to stimulate study and publication in American maritime history. This year's selection exemplifies the use of primary source material, which the contest is designed to encourage.
Charles R. Schultz has been University Archivist at Texas A&M University since 1971. From 1963 to 1971 he was Keeper of Manuscripts and later Librarian of the Seaport's G. W. Blunt White Library. He holds a Ph.D. in history from Ohio State University.
During the nineteenth century both passengers and crew members in American sailing ships tended to ignore most of the holidays which were observed ashore and which have been sanctioned in law in the twentieth century. One major divergence from this general trend occurred among the thousands of gold seekers in the hundreds of vessels that sailed from the East Coast around Cape Horn to San Francisco in 1849. The Forty-Niners made strong efforts to live on board ship just as they did ashore, possibly influenced by the fact that very few of these pioneers had ever been to sea before. That many of the passengers in each vessel were friends of long standing and were organized into joint stock companies may well have been another factor.
The seafaring Forty-Niners' celebrations were influenced on a number of occasions by the regions of the country from which many of the passengers came. In numerous vessels, especially those with Southerners on board, they celebrated George Washington's birthday with special meals, firing of salutes, dances, and drinking of toasts. Some groups celebrated the inauguration of Zachary Taylor on 5 March 1849 in similar fashion. In many vessels, and especially those from New England, Thanksgiving was a day for special meals. The major day of celebration at sea by the Forty-Niners, however, was Independence Day, which one passenger referred to as "the day of all days with the whole Yankee Nation." 1 Another referred to the day as "the glory and pride of our native land. " 2 Still another referred to it as the anniversary of the "day that speaks our nation's glory. " 3
A crowd of "Forty Niners" bound for California is depicted in "Fair Weather," drawn by Milton Burns, 1890.
Although the Forty-Niners bound to California by sea were confined to the boundaries of their sailing vessels, generally less than 150 feet long and 35 feet across, they made every effort to emulate the type of Independence Day celebrations they normally held ashore in their hometowns. The vessels were commonly very crowded with passengers and all of their belongings as well as large quantities of foodstuffs and cargoes, which the passengers expected to sell at handsome profits upon their arrival in San Francisco. The cramped quarters and limited space did not seem to dampen the celebratory spirits of these pioneers, however.
Planning for Independence Day celebrations sometimes began as early as a month before the event. The fact that the vast majority of passengers on nearly all of the ships were members of formally organized joint stock companies greatly facilitated planning for the celebrations. In some vessels planning committees were simply appointed by existing stock company officers; in others a special meeting of the members was called to elect a planning group. Sometimes the group was called simply a committee, while on other occasions the members elected a president, several vice presidents, and a secretary for the day. The passengers on individual vessels were undoubtedly influenced by the procedures followed in their home area. Typically, a planning group set an agenda for the day, chose an orator or two as well as someone to read the Declaration of Independence, made arrangements for entertainment, and organized special meals. Generally, the celebrations were planned and progressed as planned regardless of the distance, great or small, to a port and despite weather conditions.
Members of the California Mining Association and other passengers on board the bark Hannah Sprague first discussed their Independence Day activities on 6 June when a committee of three people was chosen to select an orator and someone to read the Declaration of Independence and to make other necessary arrangements. 4 The passengers representing several different companies on board the ship Andalusia met on 14 June to choose a committee of one representative of each state among the passengers. This committee then nominated a president, vice president, several secretaries, a captain of police, a flag master, and several committees and recommended an agenda for the fourth, all of which was accepted unanimously by the passengers. 5 Members of the Bunker Hill Trading and Mining Association on board the ship Regulus began "making preparations a fortnight beforehand," since that is how they had done it at home. They made plans for the celebration even though they were very near Cape Horn and were not certain the weather would be suitable for carrying out those plans. 6 The passengers in the ship Jane Parker had hoped to be in San Francisco by Independence Day, but as the end of June approached and they were still some distance away, they too made plans to celebrate the great day at sea. 7 Other groups delayed even longer, with those on board the ship Arkansas waiting until the last minute. They apparently did not make any arrangements until the evening before the fourth. 8
A spirited fourth of July oration aboard a gold rush vessel, drawn by I. W. Taber.
The seagoing Forty-Niners frequently began their Independence Day celebrations early, literally commencing festivities with a bang. Passengers in the ship Sweden may well have been the first to start celebrating as they opened the festivities just after midnight, when somewhere between thirty and fifty of them "with all sorts of instruments," 9 including "Tin Pans, Dippers, Fish Horns, Post Horns, Clarinets, Fifes, Hand Organs, Bag Pipes, Gong (Watchmans), Rattles, Accordions, Large and Small Bells, and Triangles," marched from one end of the ship to the other playing "those instruments as loud as they could blow the very worst Music I ever heard." 10 They continued to make the rounds of the ship "every fifteen minutes until dawn." 11 Those on board the ship York rivaled the Sweden passengers for an early start, as one passenger wrote of having had his "rest disturbed by the usual 'Independence' noises" when the "report of guns commenced at twelve o'clock on deck." 12 The men in the bark Hanna Sprague were not far behind as "an amateur band of callithumpians consisting of a fife, two dinner bells, a large and a small tin pan" began to serenade the passengers at four o'clock in the morning. The music, accompanied by the firing of guns and pistols, was continued until after breakfast. 13 For passengers in the bark Anna Reynolds the day began with a loud bang as they ushered in the fourth by firing thirty guns at sunrise, "one for each state." They repeated the thirty-gun salute at noon and again at sunset. 14 Although those in the ship Brooklyn fired only thirteen guns at sunrise when they sent the stars and stripes aloft, they fired thirty-one guns later in the day after they had heard an "excellent Oration." 15 Those in the Belvedere fired only ten guns, but they also had a passenger who was "well known for the health and strength of his lungs," and he awoke the others "by a series of yells past all description to define." This was all accompanied by another passenger who produced a "thunderlike noise" by repeatedly dropping a large plank on deck. There was also "bell ringing, cheering, singing, band playing, and firing of pistols." 16 The passengers in the Arkansas ushered in the day "with a grand salute of Small arms." 17 18 All of these noises, however, were overshadowed by the salute fired with a swivel gun on board the ship Andalusia.18
Following such rousing awakenings, passengers generally ate a normal breakfast and soon thereafter moved on to the planned celebration for the day. Events of the day commonly included opening and closing prayers, a reading of the Declaration of Independence, one or more orations, parades around deck, music by bands and choirs, special dinners, and regular and volunteer toasts. On some ships the passengers also had dances and were entertained by such activities as plays and minstrels.
One of the most elaborate celebrations was planned by the members of the Bunker Hill Trading and Mining Association. on board the ship Regulus. One passenger recorded the events planned for the day:
1st. remarks by the President, 2nd. ode writin for the Occasion by J. L. Bufford, 3rd. Prayer by C. E. Smith, 4th. Music, 5th. Reading of the declaration of Independence by Jn Clark, 6th. Hymn, 7th. Poem by Mr. Bufford, 8th. Music, 9th. Oration by Captain Daniel Bradford, 10th. Hymn, 11th. Benediction. Evening Exercise, ist. Hymn, 2nd. Prayer by Mr. Smith, 3rd. Music, 4th. Address by Wm. M. Parker, 5th. Hymn, 6th. Regular Toasts, 7th. Volunteer Toasts and Sentiments and remarks from several gentlemen appointed for the purpose, 8th. Volunteer toasts, 9th. Music. 19
On most other ships, the agenda for the day was considerably less elaborate and recorded in less detail.
Since the passengers in every Gold Rush ship represented a broad spectrum of the population, there was frequently a minister on board. In the absence of a minister, one of the other passengers was chosen to offer prayers. The persons who read the Declaration of Independence and gave the orations were commonly chosen several days in advance to make appropriate preparations. Most often there was only one speaker. Although diarists frequently commented how inspiring the speeches were and how attentively the passengers listened, they seldom gave any indication of what the speakers actually said. One diarist, who was also the orator, even went so far as to note, that he was frequently interrupted by cheers, but he never gave any hint about the subject matter.20 From the limited references to the contents of orations in documents and the very limited number of actual speeches available, it is yet possible to suggest that most orators spoke about the early history of the United States and its struggle for independence, the meaning of independence, and the spread of freedom in the world after American independence. They also would recount the struggles, trials, and tribulations involved in the voyage to California. In addition, they urged fellow passengers to continue the friendships established during the voyage and wished them well in their quest for gold in El Dorado. One orator compared the Forty-Niners with the passengers in the Mayflower and hoped that his listeners would be governed by the same motives and principles.21
Track chart of the passage of the ship Andalusia, Baltimore to San Francisco, April-September 1849. The fourth of July is noted off Cape Horn.
Sketch of the ship Andalusia
In most cases the music, both band and choral, consisted of the typical patriotic tunes which a number of journalists referred to as "national airs." Only a few journalists actually gave titles, but those which were listed included, not surprisingly, "Star Spangled Banner," "Yankee Doodle," "Hail Columbia," and "Land of Our Father's Land." In some cases, songs were specially composed. J. N. Sweezey performed such a service on board the ship Brooklyn, while an unnamed passenger did the same for the bark Henry Lee. 22
Dinners served on Independence Day commonly consisted of some foods from regular ships stores, some special contributions made by the captain, and contributions by the passengers from their personal supplies. The freshness and variety of food was largely determined by the length of time since the vessel had been in port. Passengers on board the ship Magnolia enjoyed beef and veal pies, green corn, green peas, green beans, preserved peach sauce, mince pies, apple pies, English walnuts, apples, and pears. They also had liquors of various kinds. 23 Having sailed from Tulcahuano, Chile, on 18 June, they still had a great variety of vegetables and fruits. The three companies in the ship Sweden did not fare as well as those in the Magnolia. They had ham, coffee, and hard bread for breakfast; preserved meats, duff, and sauce with almonds and raisins for dinner; and gingerbread and tea for supper. The almonds and raisins were contributed by Captain Cotting.24 Those on board the ship Brooklyn had fresh roast pork, ham, tongue, soda biscuits, sugar crackers, pies, cakes, and Coffee. 25 Members of the Narragausett Association on board the bark Velasco enjoyed rice pudding and gingerbread in addition to normal shipboard fare.26The members of the Cayuga joint stock Company in the bark Belvedere had boiled ham, biscuits, gingerbread, cheese, and other unnamed items classified as an "excellent repast." 27 Passengers in the bark Canton were served "five fine boiled hams, pickles, preserves, mince pies, peach and apple pies,... plum cakes brought out by some of the company, and saved on purpose for the Fourth, nuts, fine raisins, and ... nice punch made out of wine, tamarind and brandy - all of which . . . was good and did honor to the day." 28
The members of the Bunker Hill Trading and Mining Association killed their last two hogs on 2 July to have fresh meat for the fourth and also had "a great many other rarities" preserved for the special day. They enjoyed the meal on the fourth in spite of the very bad weather off Cape Horn, which forced the postponement of their other Independence Day festivities until the tenth. 29 The passengers in the ship York apparently were not so fortunate. Although their overall celebration was elaborate, their dinner consisted of two courses of "Soup and boulli" followed by salt junk "somewhat of the consistency of mahogany," salt pork, "petrified biscuits"' and rice pancakes "technically called slap jacks. " 30 There were at least two different companies as well as other passengers on board the ship Andalusia. Usually they ate in separate areas based upon their class of passage or cabin, but on Independence Day everyone ate together except for the women. They had fresh pork, pigs heads made into mock turtle soup, and apple pies. 31 The members of the Hartford Union Mining and Trading Company on board the bark Henry Lee had some "choice pieces of Beef and Pork handsomely sliced," as well as a whole apple pie for every person rather than the "miserable eighth or quarter" they were normally served. Some "nice cakes" also had been baked, but the other food was so plentiful that no one ate the cakes. In the Henry Lee everyone ate at one sitting on Independence Day, whereas normally they ate in at least two shifts.32
Toasts were frequently given after the passengers had enjoyed their Independence Day dinners. Regular toasts were prepared in advance and were offered by a committee chosen specifically for that purpose. 'There were frequently thirteen such toasts, one for each of the original thirteen states.33 The regular toasts commonly honored, such things as Independence Day, the President of the United States, George Washington, the country, the army, the navy, the flag, and the heroes of 1776. Other prepared toasts honored the ship in which they sailed, the state from which they sailed, California, the company of which they were members, and "the Ladies," or "the Fair Sex."34
Regular toasts were followed by volunteer toasts. Commonly all passengers, and in some cases even the sailors, were given an opportunity to offer toasts. A diarist in the bark Canton noted that "we had each to give a toast" and added that the toasts were to be sent to New York to be published. John L. Hall recorded seventeen of the many volunteer toasts given on board the bark Henry Lee. A passenger in the brig Osceola reported they had "some fifty volunteer toasts, many of which were rich, rare and racy, and called down thunders of applause."35 On board the Andalusia the swivel gun was fired after each regular toast as the "signal for drinking and cheering." They apparently also drank after each volunteer toast. Since personal supplies of alcohol were depleted, the captain gave three gallons of liquor to the passengers and was "highly applauded" for his "liberality." Passengers in other ships also drank alcoholic beverages after each toast, but those on board the bark Henry Lee "pledged" their many toasts with "bumpers of cold water."36 Those on board the brig Osceola must also have toasted with water as one passenger noted "everything passed off quietly and soberly. There was no liquor on board."37 A passenger in the bark Yeoman lamented that they had no "licker, except potato whiskey" which he said was "potatoes and molasses fermented. . .it is vile stuff."38 Although several diarists reported the consumption of substantial quantities of alcohol on Independence Day, very few of them noted anything about the effects of this drinking upon the passengers.
The variety of musical instruments taken to sea by passengers is suggested in "The Orchestra."
Parades and exercises by military organizations were a regular feature of Independence Day celebrations ashore. It is not surprising, therefore, to observe the frequency with which such activities were noted at sea by the Forty-Niners. According to one account of the voyage of the ship Magnolia, "there was the usual military parade, but on a scale of unusual magnificance. Charley Bainbridge arrayed himself, as the law directs, in knapsack and cartouch box; and shouldering a rusty musket, marched with measured step several times round the ship; looking all the while, over both shoulders to see the admiring crowd that followed at his heels. He included in his single person all the varied pomp of captain, lieutenant, private, and musicians; his whistling was indeed extraordinary."39 On board the bark Belvedere a Captain Stuart (or Steward) paraded a company of militia around the deck. Both leader and troops, however, were comically dressed and performed their exercises in a fashion suitable to their attire.40 A Captain Drew "dressed up in his regimentals, with a huge long sword, a cocked hat, top boots, and looking altogether as green as a country militia" led the procession on board the ship York. Captain Drew's company consisted of "a motle group of passengers and sailors mixed, variously armed, some with horse pistols, some with old-fashioned blunderbusses, some with rusty rapiers, one with a swab, one with a 'squilgee,' one with a slush-bucket, one with a watchtacle, while the carpenter, marching in the knock-kneed style, brought up the rear, shouldering a broom." Captain Drew added to the humor of the event by giving all his orders "in a truly nautical style." 41
In contrast to these humorous activities, the sailors and the boys on board the ship Andalusia were organized into a company all dressed in scarlet shirts. They "marched and Countermarched with soldier-like precision" and "presented a very interesting sight. " 42 Similarly, on board the ship Sweden a military company of twenty to thirty "men dressed in different uniforms Paraded on Deck, went through different Exercises accompanied with a Fife and Drum."43 Another witness of the same event noted "of all the comical looking and acting specimens of humanity I never saw their superiors."44
As dances and other forms of entertainment were popular at home, the seafaring Forty-Niners arranged similar activities at sea. Dances were held on board the ships Sweden and Brooklyn and the barks Henry Lee and Velasco. The diarist of the Henry Lee referred to the event as a "Grand National Ball," which was held on the quarterdeck where illumination was fumished by the Moon and lanterns.45 A dance was also planned on board the ship Andalusia, but it was postponed because the musicians were too tired to play.46 Other forms of entertainment included a boxing match on board the bark Velasco, a minstrel on board the ship Sabina, and a play on board the ship Trescott. The play lasted from seven to ten in the evening and was performed on deck under a tent set up specially for the event. Some of the female passengers provided shawls and dresses for the men who performed female roles. 47
All of these activities apparently were planned and carried out to rekindle the spirit of 1776 in the hearts of the passengers. The efforts succeeded in an unusual form on board the bark Yeoman. On this vessel, the dogs Jacob and Leo, who had previously fought several battles for territorial supremacy and had been separated, "had a regular 'knock down and drag out'" when Jacob escaped from the forecastle. They fought a "most desperate and bloody fight" before they could be separated.48 This was in marked contrast to the relationships between the humans, which seem to have been all peace and tranquility everywhere.Since the seagoing Forty-Niners attempted to celebrate Independence Day at sea in much the same fashion as they observed it at home, it seems appropriate to ascertain to what extent they felt they had succeeded. At home it was traditional to display the American flag and to decorate speakers' platforms with bunting of patriotic colors. Several diarists reported raising the American colors at sunrise and firing salutes. One diarist recorded fairly extensive decorations on board the ship Andalusia. The major portion of the celebration was held below deck, where the open berths were all hid by the different flags and ensigns, which were everywhere displayed. A forum was erected immediately under the main hatchway, on either side which was an American flag. Above it hung the Declaration of Independence, handsomely framed, which happened to be in possession of one of the gentlemen. Over it the American eagle was suspended in whose beak was an olive branch of Peace (not very green however).
One diarist in the ship Magnolia noted simply that the cabin had been "handsomely decorated for the occasion."49
It was quite common for the newspapers of the day to publish extensive accounts of events such as Independence Day celebrations. Mention has already been made of the published account of the festivities on board the bark Hannah Sprague and the plans to send the toasts offered on board the bark Canton to New York for publication. Several passengers sought permission to publish the speech given on board the ship York, but the orator refused to grant permission. 50 Several passengers in the ship Andalusia prepared a report of the activities on board that ship to forward to Valparaiso for publication "for the express gratification of our beloved friends, to whom, we flatter ourselves, it will be of no little interest."51
Several diarists noted their satisfaction with the events on board their vessels. One on board the ship Sweden noted that although they were on the sea and "deprived of the many luxuries of life," they still "felt very independent." He also noted that "the day passed off very pleasantly. "52 A passenger in the bark Selma noted that they set out to "celebrate the Day with noise and disorder .. in a purely patriotic way as usual" and concluded that the day "passed with less disorder and more satisfaction to all than was feared by many. "53 A passenger in the ship Arkansas was more positive and enthusiastic when he noted "I never remember spending the fourth of July more pleasantly. Everything passed in the most pleasant manner and all seemed to vie with each other to make all happy. I did not expect to pass the fourth in so appropriate a manner." 54 Similar sentiments were expressed by a passenger in the ship Regulus, even though the weather off Cape Horn forced postponement of the festivities until 10 July. Even after a delay of six days he reported "it was the best celebration I ever attended, the most lively and spirited of all jubilies I ever witnessed. The toasts and sentiments was very Patriotic and to the purpose. The Oration was the best I ever heard. " 55 A diarist on board the ship Andalusia reported that "the whole affair throughout reflects honourably upon all concerned. The day, instead of being marked by any of those outbreaks which too generally characterise its observance on land, passed off quietly and calmly without a single incident calculated to mar its pleasure." 56 On board the bark Henry Lee a diarist noted that several passengers had expressed in his hearing "that it had been, on the whole, the best celebration of the Fourth we ever participated in."57
Though far from home in a constricted little world, the Forty-Niners thoroughly enjoyed their observance of the seventy-third anniversary of American independence and felt very satisfied about the manner in which they had celebrated "the day of all days with the whole Yankee Nation. "58
1 William Ives Morgan."Gold Dust: The Log of a Forty-Niner," p. 2, 4 July 1849, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, California. This typescript of Morgan's original journal of the voyage from New Haven to San Francisco in the bark J. WaIls, Jr. under the command of Captain Sanford, along with footnotes and a forward containing biographical data on Morgan, was prepared by Florence E. (Downs) Muzzy about 1930. Brief excerpts of the journal were published in Harper's Magazine 113 (November 1906) : 920-26.
2 Nelson Kingsley, "Diary of Nelson Kingsley," ed. by Frederick Teggart, Publications of the Academy of Pacific Coast History 3 (December 1914): 262. Kingsley made a voyage from New Haven to San Francisco in the bark Anna Reynolds.
3 John Linville Hall, Around the Horn in '49: The journal of the Hartford Union Mining and Trading Company (San Francisco. The Book Club of California, 1928), P. 97. Reprint of Journal of the Hartford Union Mining and Trading Company (J.L Hall: on board the Henry Lee, 1849).
4 Alfred Wheeler, Journal of a voyage from New York to San Francisco in the bark Hannah Sprague under the command of Captain David F. Lansing, 6 June 1849, California Historical Society, San Francisco, California; hereafter cited as Wheeler, Hannah Sprague journal.
5 Anne Willson Booth, Journal of a voyage from Baltimore to San Francisco in the ship Andalusia under the command of Captain F. W. Willson, 14 and 15 June 1849, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, California; hereafter cited as Booth, Andalusia journal.
6 Thomas Williams, Journal of a voyage from Boston to San Francisco in the ship Regulus under the command of Captain Daniel Bradford, ca. 25 June - 10 July 1849, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, California; hereafter cited as Williams, Regulus journal.
7 William S. Hull, Journal of a voyage from Baltimore to San Francisco in the ship Jane Parker under the command of Captain Gordon, 29 June 1849, Library of Maryland History, Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore, Maryland; hereafter cited as Hull, Jane Parker journal.
8 Benjamin H. Deane, Journal Of a voyage from New York to San Francisco in the ship Arkansas under the command of Captain P. W. Shepheard, 3 July 1849, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, California; hereafter cited as Deane, Arkansas journal.
9 John Tolman, Journal of a voyage from Boston to San Francisco in the ship Sweden under the command of Captain Jessie G. Cotting, 5 July 1849, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, California; hereafter cited as Tolman, Sweden journal.
10 Benjamin Bailey, Journal of a voyage from Boston to San Francisco in the ship Sweden under the command of Captain Jessie G. Cotting, 4 July 1849, G. W. Blunt White Library, Mystic Seaport Museum; hereafter cited as Bailey, Sweden journal.
11 Tolman, Sweden journal, 5 July, 1849; Bailey, Sweden journal, 4 July 1849.
12 Ferdinand Cartwright Ewer, Journal of a voyage from Boston to San Francisco in the ship York under the command of Captain George N. Cheever, 4 July 1849, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, California; hereafter cited as Ewer, York journal.
13 Wheeler, Hannah Sprague journal, 4 July 1849.
14 James P. Keeler Journal of a voyage from New Haven to San Francisco in the bark Anna Reynolds, 4 July 1849, California Historical Society, San Francisco, California; hereafter cited as Keeler, Anna Reynolds journal; Kingsley, "Diary"' p. 262.
15 Stephen L. and James E. Fowler, Account of the voyage from New York to San Francisco in the ship Brooklyn under the command of Captain Richardson, P. 2, typescript copy in Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, California; hereafter cited as Fowler, account of Brooklyn voyage.
16 Isaac Shepard, Jr., Journal of a voyage from New York to San Francisco in the bark Belvedere under the command of Captain Samuel Barney, 4 July 1849, California Historical Society, San Francisco, California. Shepard spelled the name of the vessel Belvidera, but it appears to be correctly spelled Belvedere. Hereafter cited as Shepard, Belvedere journal; H. F. W. Swain, Journal of a voyage from New York to San Francisco in the bark Belvedere under the command of Captain Samuel Barney, 4 July 1849, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, California; hereafter cited as Swain, Belvedere journal.
17 Deane, Arkansas journal, 4 July 1849.
18 Booth, Andalusia journal, 4 July 1849.
19 Williams, Regulus journal, ca. 25 June - 10 July 1849.
20 Wheeler, Hannah Sprague journal, 4 July 1849.
21 Hall, Around the Horn in '49, pp. 98-99; William S. Hull, untitled address delivered on board the ship Jane Parker 4 July 1849, Library of Maryland History, Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore, Maryland; Celebration of the Seventy Third Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence of the United States on Board the Barque "Hannah Sprague" July 4, 1849 (New York: Jennings & Co., 1849). The last contains the text of the address of Alfred Wheeler. In his journal, Wheeler noted that the passengers had passed a resolution to publish three thousand copies of his address at Rio de Janeiro, but it appears as though the publishing was actually done in New York. Ferdinand C. Ewer also noted in his journal on board the York that his fellow passengers wanted to publish his oration, but he refused to permit it. Harry G. Brown, Journal of a voyage from New York to San Francisco in the bark Selma under the command of Captain Orrin Sellow, 4 July 1849, G. W. Blunt White Library, Mystic Seaport Museum; hereafter cited as H. G. Brown, Selma journal.
22 Fowler, account of Brooklyn voyage, pp. 2-5; Hall, Around the Horn in '49, pp. 97-98; Swain, Belvedere journal, 4 July 1849; Ewer, York journal, 4 July 1849.
23 S. Mortimer Collins, Journal of a voyage from New Bedford to San Francisco in the ship Magnolia under the command of Captain B. Frank Simmons, 4 July 1849, type- script copy in Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, California; William F. Reed, Journal of a voyage from New Bedford to San Francisco in the ship Magnolia under the command of Captain B. Frank Simmons, 4 July 1849, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, California; hereafter referred to as Reed, Magnolia journal; [George Payson], Golden Dreams and Leaden Realities (New York: G.P. Putnam& Co., 1853; reprint, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Literature House, 1970), p. 64
24 Bailey, Sweden journal, 4 July 1849; Tolman, Sweden journal, 5 July 1849.
25 Fowler, Account of the Brooklyn voyage, pp. 2-5
26 Thomas Reid, journal of a voyage from Boston to San Francisco in the bark Velasco, 4 July 1849, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, California; hereafter cited as Reid, Velasco journal.
27 Swain, Belvedere journal, 4 July 1849; Shepard, Belvedere journal, 4 July 1849.
28 Joseph Kendall, A Landsman's Voyage to California, ed. by Wilbur Hall, (San Francisco; Privately Published, 1935), pp. 111- 112.
29 Williams, Regulus journal, ca. 25 June - 10 July 1849.
30 Ewer, York journal, 4 July 1849.
31 Booth, Andalusia journal, 4 July 1849.
32 Hall, Around the Horn in '49, p. 103
33 H. G. Brown, Selma journal, 4 July 1849; and Hall, Around the Horn in '49, pp, 99-100.
34 H.G. Brown, Selma journal, 4 1849; and Hall, Around the Horn in '49, pp, 99-100.
35 Kendall, A Landsman's Voyage, pp. 111- 112; Hall, Around the Horn in '49, pp. 100- 102; and Upham, Notes of a Voyage, pp. 193-195.
36 Booth, Andalusia journal, 4 July 1849; and Hall, Around the Horn in '49, p. 99.
37 Upham, Notes of a Voyage, p. 195.
38Alfred Doten, The Journals of Alfred Doten, 1849-1903, 3 vols., ed. by Walter van Tilburg Clark, (Reno: University Of Nevada Press), I. 26-27.
39[Payson], Golden Dreams, p. 63. According to the list of passengers at the end of S. Mortimer Collins's journal in the Magnolia, "Charlie Bainbridge" was actually Charles C. Spalding of Montpelier, Vermont.
40Shepard, Belvedere journal, 4 July 1849; and Swain, Belvedere journal, 4 July 1849
41Ewer, York journal, 4 July 1849.
42Booth, Andalusia journal, 4 July 1849.
43Bailey, Sweden journal, 4 July, 1849.
44Tolman, Sweden journal, 5 July 1849.
45Bailey, Sweden journal, 4 July 1849; Tolman, Sweden journal, 5 July 1849; Fowler, account of the Brooklyn voyage, pp. 2-5; Hall, Around the Horn in '49, p. 104; Reid, Velasco journal, 4 July 1849.
46Booth, Andalusia journal, 4 July 1849.
47Reid, Velasco journal, 4 July 1849; Henry Green, Journal of a voyage from Sag Harbor to San Francisco in the ship Sabina under the command of Captain Henry Green, 4 July 1849, G. W. Blunt White Library, Mystic Seaport Museum; William Lord Stevens, journal of a voyage from Mystic to San Francisco in the ship Trescott. G. W. Blunt White Library, Mystic Seaport Museum. The Stevens journal is written entirely in rhyming verse and has no dates. The dates of the voyage were 24 January - 7 August 1849.
48Doten Journal, I: 26-27.
49Booth, Andalusia journal, 4 July 1849; Reed, Magnolia journal, 4 July 1849.
50Ewer, York journal, 5 July 1849.
51Booth, Andalusia journal, 4 July 1849.
52Tolman, Sweden journal, 5 July 1849.
53Samuel W. Brown Journal of a voyage from New York to San Francisco in the bark Selma under the command of Captain Orrin Sellow, California Historical Society, San Francisco, California.
54Deane, Arkansas journal, 4 July 1849.
55Williams, Regulus journal, ca. 25 June - 10 July 1849.
56Booth, Andalusia journal, 4 July 1849.
57Hall, Around the Horn in '49, p. 104.
58Morgan, "Gold Dust," p. 2.